Adult Mental Illness Rates by State

Just over 4 percent of Pennsylvania adults reported experiencing severe mental illness in the past year, while approximately 18 percent reported any mental illness during the same time period, according to the new brief from SAMHSA, State Estimates of Adult Mental Illness for the 2011 and 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The report contains data from over 92,000 adults in the United States who participated in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health in 2011 and 2012.  The rate in Pennsylvania has increased only incrementally since the 2008 and 2009 report, when 3.5 percent of adults in Pennsylvania reported a severe mental illness in the past year, while 17.7  percent reported any mental illness.

In the 2011, 2012 report, West Virginia had the highest rate of severe mental illness (5.5 percent) reported among adults, as well as the highest rate of any mental illness among adults, 21.4 percent. There does not seem to be any regional correlation to rates of mental illness, as states with high and low rates of both severe mental illness and any mental illness are located in all regions of the country.  However, these data can assist in examining connections between mental health and other health issues at the state level, such as the link between mental illness and non-response to traditional anti-smoking interventions, hopefully leading to similar innovative approaches to public policy.

 

 

 

Report Citations:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (February 28, 2014). The NSDUH Report: State Estimates of Adult Mental Illness from the 2011 and 2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (October 6, 2011). The NSDUH Report: State Estimates of Adult Mental Illness. Rockville, MD.

SAMHSA Report Holds Useful Data on Behavioral Health in Pennsylvania

SAMHSA's The National Behavioral Health Barometer looks at trends and snapshots of American mental health, drug and alcohol dependency and substance use.
SAMHSA’s National Behavioral Health Barometer looks at recent data on mental health, drug and alcohol dependency and substance use.

Last week the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) announced a new report containing a wealth of data on American’s behavioral health, both overall and at the state level.  The National Behavioral Health Barometer looks at mental illness, alcohol dependency, illicit drug use, treatment rates and perceptions of the dangers of substance use. This timely trend and snapshot data – particularly those from the state reports – might be helpful for your upcoming grant writing, business planning,  or community initiative proposals.

Highlights from the national report:

  • In 2012, approximately 4 percent of adults had a severe mental illness the year prior to the survey.
  • In 2012, more females 12 to 17 years old (13.7 percent) reported a major depressive episode in the year prior than males (4.7 percent), and 37 percent of youths received treatment for depression within the year prior to being surveyed.
  • Between 2008 and 2012, cigarette use among youths (across all racial groups) declined from 9.2 to 6.6. percent.
  • In 2012, people between 18 and 25 years of age reported the highest rate of alcohol dependence/abuse (14.3 percent). The rate of alcohol dependency of those over age 12 decreased overall between 2008 (7.4 percent) and 2012 (6.8 percent).

Highlights from the Pennsylvania report:

  •  The rate of adults in Pennsylvania having a severe mental illness in 2012 was the same as the national rate. The majority of adults served in the Commonwealth’s public mental health system were unemployed (70 percent) followed by those not in the workforce (20.6 percent).  The percentages of both adults and youths reporting improvement after treatment in the public mental health system were lower than the national rate.
  • Similar to the national level data, in 2012, 8.7 percent of Pennsylvania youth ages 12 to 17 reported a past year major depressive episode.  40.4 percent received treatment for depression during that time period.
  • Although the percentage of Pennsylvania youth who smoke cigarettes declined since 2008, in 2012 it remained above the national rate –  8.8 percent compared to 7.2 percent. The mean age of first cigarette use among Pennsylvania youth was 14 years old.
  • In 2012, 37.1 percent of Pennsylvania youth did not perceive great risk  from smoking one or more packs of cigarettes daily, an increase from 2008 (34.3 percent) and above the national rate of 34.1 percent.
  • Pennsylvania’s rate of alcohol dependency/abuse and rate of illicit drug dependency/abuse among people age 12 and over remained stable between the years of 2008-2012 and were similar to the national rates.

Copies of the national publication and all state reports are available for download at the SAMHSA website.

 

Photo Credit:  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Behavioral Health Barometer: United States,2013. HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4796. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

Report Citations:   Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Behavioral Health Barometer: United States,2013. HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4796. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Behavioral Health Barometer: Pennsylvania, 2013. HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4796PA. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

 

New Data: Prevalence of Mental Health Diagnoses, Prescriptions Among Foster Care Youth

The 2013 report Diagnosis and Health Care Utilization of Children who are in Foster Care and Covered by Medicaid, from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) is loaded with useful data, including those showing a stark contrast in the prevalence of mental health diagnoses between Medicaid-covered youth in foster care and their peers outside the child welfare system.  While recent research indicates that the increase in psychiatric diagnoses and office visit rates for U.S. youth outpace those of adults (based on comparison of data from the latter half of the 1990s and 2007-2010),  mental illness and psychiatric disabilities appear to be more prevalent among children in foster care than in the general population (a trend also found in countries outside of the United States).

The SAMHSA report divides findings into age groups (and is available at their website in PDF form), but some of the overall trends include:

  • Mental health diagnoses (49 percent) rates among foster care youth covered by Medicaid was higher in 2010 than their counterparts not in foster care (11 percent)
  • Children in foster care had more outpatient visits and longer lengths of an average inpatient stay than those not in foster care

Among adolescents (ages 12-17):

  • Attention-deficient, conduct and disruptive disorder were the most common diagnoses in 2010, occurring in 38 percent of foster care youth compared to 11 percent of their peers outside of foster care
  • 40 percent of 12-17 years olds in foster care used prescription medication related to a mental health diagnosis

In light of these trends, it might be worth noting that a December 2012 report from the Government Accountability Office raised concerns to the Department of Health and Human Services’ over appropriate treatment of mental illness and use of prescribed psychiatric medication for children in Medicaid or in the foster care system (the majority also covered by Medicaid). Their report found that youth covered by Medicaid were twice as likely to take anti-psychotic medications than privately insured youth, but may not have received counseling or additional mental health treatment other than the medication.

 

 

Report Citation: Center for Mental Health Services and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Diagnoses and Health Care Utilization of Children Who Are in Foster Care and Covered by Medicaid. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4804. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013.

 

Veterans, PTSD and Employment

 

What is the relationship between military deployment and employment upon returning home? How does wartime service impact the future earnings of veterans?   Is there a link between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and unemployment?

A recent study from the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Unemployment among Recent Veterans during the Great Recession by Jason Faberman and Taft Foster, found that recent veterans have higher rates of unemployment than non-veterans or older veterans. Taking demographic variables and economic cycles into consideration, the report concludes that the rigors and aftereffects of wartime deployment do have an impact on employment upon return.

A technical report from RAND, takes a closer look at one of the potential impacts of serving during a conflict, namely PTSD, among reservists and post-deployment employment earnings.  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Earnings of Military Reservists by David S. Loughran and Paul Heaton (e-book is available for download at the RAND website), examines data on PTSD symptoms in reservists completing deployments from 2003 to 2006 and labor market data in an effort to determine a relationship to employment earnings.  The data initially indicated that reservists with symptoms of PTSD  earned less income the year following their return than their counterparts not experiencing symptoms. Additional analysis showed that some differences were present prior to deployment, specifically lower average earnings and a lower level of education.  Further, the researchers found that the gap in employment earnings was greatly minimized (down to a range of 1% – 4%) through the accounting for demographic variables and use of statistical models.

Although the gap in earnings between reservists symptomatic of PTSD post-deployment and those who were not is much smaller than initially indicated, the report suggests that there may be a relationship between PTSD symptoms and underemployment.  Also, the authors note that their study focused primarily on the first year post-deployment, and some manifestations of PTSD may occur at a later point in time.

PTSD makes up 65 percent of the disability claims of recent veterans, according to a 2013 survey from Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America (IAVA).  Half of the IAVA survey respondents had friends or family suggest that they seek treatment for a mental health injury, while 37 percent of members knew a veteran who had committed suicide and just under a third (30 percent) had considered it themselves.  Although the data on the relationship between PTSD and unemployment is mixed, the challenge to find work while being open about experiencing PTSD is a real one.   The dialogue and the research need to continue.