Posts Tagged by protective factors
|November 9, 2013||Posted by M. P. under Education, News, Policy, Research, Youth Development||
If you were born into a family at the lower end of the earning spectrum, there is a good chance you will remain there, but if you do move up you likely won’t reach the middle income bracket, according to a study by The Pew Charitable Trusts on economic mobility. The findings from the report, Moving On Up Why Do Some Americans Leave the Bottom of the Economic Ladder, but Not Others?, point to a combination of race, educational attainment and employment as having a strong influence on the likelihood of a person ascending the income ladder. Specifically, the researchers found that 86 percent of college graduates versus 55 percent of those without a college degree moved up from the lowest category of the income ladder, as did 84 percent of double income families compared to 49 percent of those with one earner. The accumulation of savings and home equity were also related to upward mobility.
With human capital linked to economic mobility, it makes sense to take a closer look at the external factors that influence the development of one’s knowledge, skill sets and other facets of employability. The 2013 Opportunity Index from Opportunity Nation indicates some overall growth (2.6 percent) in the civic, educational and economic factors that are associated with upward mobility in the United States from 2011 to 2013. An interesting finding was that the zip code tends to be the strongest predictor of achievement – in other words – where one resides and the social, environmental, and institutional factors within that area influence one’s ability to access and successfully leverage opportunity for upward mobility.
Some of the national findings from the Opportunity Index:
- 5.8 million youth ages 16 to 24 are not in school and not employed
- 49 states saw an increase in their poverty rate even as unemployment decreased between 2011 and 2013
- High school graduation rates and the rate of people with at least an associate’s degree increased during this time period
- Unemployment was down, and mean household income was up between 2011 and 2013, but the poverty rate also increased (13.8 percent from 12.5 percent)
- Preschool enrollment stayed steady at just shy of 50 percent of 3 and 4 year olds, and on-time high school graduation increased to 84.1 percent (from 82.7 percent)
- The rate of violent crime and adult volunteering decreased
Photo Credit: M. Puzzanchera (Own Work) (CC By-NC-ND 3.0)
|March 17, 2013||Posted by M. P. under Research, Youth Development||
The recently released brief Participation of Children in School Music or Other Performing Arts from the Child Trends Data Bank takes a look at trends in the level of student arts activity over the past two decades. Some of the highlights:
- The percentage of 10th and 12th grade student participating in performing arts at school between 1991 and 2011 varied little, while the participation rates of 8th graders increased in 2011 after a decline since 1991.
- Participation in arts activities by boys drops off in the higher grades (grades 10, 12).
- Students of parents with a higher level of education are more likely to be active in arts activities, although the gap in participation is larger in the 8th grade data than the higher grades.
Student participation in school arts activities may be a telling child indicator due to its correlation with future academic accomplishments. A report from the National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) found that high-school youth with a high level of involvement in the arts (though classroom instruction or lessons, event attendance, and/or participation) were three time more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree than peers without such involvement. Their grades in college were also more likely to be higher. Other NEA research indicates a strong relationship between arts education and involvement as a student and participation in the arts as an adult – specifically attendance at arts events.
What impact, if any, do you think arts involvement has on future success?
|March 29, 2012||Posted by M. P. under Children and Family, Research, Youth Development|
A report from Child Trends examines the impact of emotional support for mothers on familial relationships and child outcomes among disadvantaged families. The researchers measured the effect of emotional support – often found in healthly, reassuring relationships – of mothers on the variables of school engagement, school competence and symptoms of depression in their children. Findings include,
- The children of mothers reporting emotional support were more engaged in school than those of mothers lacking emotional support. These findings held across three groups – among single mothers (74 percent versus 67 percent), mothers who did not finish high-school (75 percent versus 70 percent), and in low income families (76 percent versus 70 percent).
- The children of mothers reporting emotional support were more likely to have social competence than children with mothers lacking support across the same three groups – single mothers (56 percent to 43 percent), mothers who did not finish high school (49 percent versus 38 percent), and households below the poverty line (54 percent versus 41 percent).
Overall, data indicate that youth with mothers who have emotional support in their lives experience better behavioral outcomes than their peers from families lacking this specific protective factor. The implications of these findings should resonate with nonprofit and community organizations who work with low-income families or in disadvantaged neighborhoods and inform their programmatic offerings.
The report, Disadvantaged Families and Child Outcomes: The Importance of Emotional Support for Mothers by Tawana Bandy, B.S., Kristine M. Andrews, Ph.D., and Kristin Anderson Moore, Ph.D. is available at the Child Trends site.
|December 9, 2011||Posted by M. P. under Children and Family, Health, Research, Youth Development||
Being a good parent may protect your children from the long-term health effects of poverty, according to a study published in the November 2011 edition of Psychological Science, the journal from the Association for Psychological Science.
The researchers found that children who had been raised in poverty often experienced chronic health issues later in life, however, a small subset of low-income children remained healthy throughout their lives. Closer examination of various factors identified a high level of maternal nurturing as the primary barrier or protective factor against chronic health problems, even more than achieving a higher socioeconomic status as an adult. Clearly, data and long-term outcomes support concern for the emotional well being of children, making it as important as care for their physical needs. Children benefit from being raised in a loving, safe, stable environment.
The study abstract is available online but the full article can only be accessed through a subscription service (check your local or university library system).
Study citation: Miller GE, Lachman ME, Chen E, Gruenewald TL, Karlamangla AS, Seeman TE.
Pathways to Resilience: Maternal Nurturance as a Buffer Against the Effects of
Childhood Poverty on Metabolic Syndrome at Midlife. Psychol Sci. 2011 Nov 28.
[Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22123777.