Posts Tagged by risk factors
|April 9, 2013||Posted by M. P. under Children and Family, Drug and Alcohol, Policy, Program Model, Youth Development||
The impact of parental substance abuse on children’s stability and well-being is a concern that crosses systems. Data suggests that parental drug and alcohol use is related to abuse and neglect and increases the likelihood of a parent’s involvement in the justice system – including the possibility of incarceration. The National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare (NCSACW) provides In-Depth Technical Assistance (IDTA) to a handful of sites across the country in the areas of substance abuse, child welfare and the courts to result in better outcomes for families involved in these systems. For approximately 18 months, the IDTA team works with local, state or tribal entities to coordinate strategy and services across systems through the use of evidence-based programs and on-site technical assistance in order to grow capacity for improved child and family outcomes.
The report, In-Depth Technical Assistance (IDTA) Final Report 2007-2012 provides an overview of the IDTA program model, related site accomplishments, and the lessons of system change at various levels. Some findings include,
- 50 percent of the sites implemented (or enhanced) a recovery specialist model in their programs;
- 68 percent developed and/or implemented cross-system training plans;
- 60 percent developed and/or implemented screening protocols that resulted in lowers costs, reduced redundancy and a more efficient referral process;
- 27 percent used cross-system data collection and tracking processes, such as case reviews and drop-off analysis, to inform policy and program decisions. (Note: according to the SAMHSA website, a Drop-Off Analysis is “a method used to assess linkages among child welfare, treatment agencies and courts. The method helps to identify connections that families need to make between systems to obtain services and achieve their child welfare case goals.”)
In addition to program findings, the brief discusses numerous lessons learned around systems change, particularly: issues in achieving long-term policy and practice changes and avoiding the fracture of collaborative relationships post-project, leadership focused on engaging and sustaining partners, use of data to identify areas of and opportunities for change, and realistic timelines for implementing system change and shared accountability.
|April 2, 2013||Posted by M. P. under Behavorial Health, Children and Family, Juvenile Delinquency, Research, Youth Development||
For over a decade The Urban Institute has tracked the long term impacts for families relocated by the Chicago Housing Authority to make way for their removal of public housing complexes throughout the city. The relocated residents report better housing and neighborhood quality since the move. For youth however, the improved living environment does not appear to have had a transformative effect on their lives.
According to the brief, Chronic Violence: Beyond the Developments, follow-up data from 2011 indicate that children in the new housing (voucher-enabled private rentals or refurbished public housing) were not attending higher quality schools and were still living in neighborhoods with nearly half of the residents below the poverty line. Parental reports of negative behavior and delinquent activity were similar to the baseline data of youth in the public housing complexes. In addition, academic performance remained a concern, with approximately 33 percent of the teenagers not in the appropriate grade for their age and about 66 percent unengaged in school or work activities.
Authors Chantal Hailey and Megan Gallagher discuss the presence and patterns of neighborhood violence as a continuing factor risk factor in the lives of these families, even after relocation, specifically the impact it has upon youth in the form of continued exposure to trauma, a nomadic lifestyle, and avoidance or isolation. The researchers at The Urban Institute recommend intensive case management services for the relocated families in Chicago, with the hope that such intervention would improve future outcomes.
The impact of neighborhood violence on youth can be devastating, both in perceived and actual threats of physical harm, the psychological toll of anxiety, and the impact of traumatic events on a child’s development. It should be noted that research identified similar problems for youth in “rough” neighborhoods from a sample that included families above the poverty line. Addressing the long-lasting impacts of community violence in a meaningful manner is challenging as both the context of the violence witnessed and gender differences in coping techniques may lessen responsiveness to standardized interventions “proven” in another city. The mixed perception of the outside “experts” (school officials, teachers, social workers, counselors, police, etc.) by community members may also serve as a obstacle in forming a partnership to reduce youth and adult violence. There is not a single policy nor intervention that will be able to neutralize or remove every risk factor, but based on the results of various initiatives across the country, a combination of behavioral interventions and police strategies may prove effective going forward.
|December 7, 2012||Posted by M. P. under Children and Family, Drug and Alcohol, Health, Research, Youth Development||
Fewer adolescents are smoking cigarettes even though their attitudes about the risks associated with smoking have not decreased, according to a report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
The report, State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2009 and 2010 describes the beneficial impact of smoking prevention and education programming on adolescent smoking rates, although the impact was not apparent in all states.
Ohio and West Virginia were among states with the highest rates of teenage smokers (11.2 and 11.9 percent respectively) though both saw their rates decrease significantly since 2002-03. In Pennsylvania, 10.3 percent of adolescents reported they had smoked in the past month according to the 2009-10 data, another significant decrease from 2002. Overall, 44 states in the county experienced significant decreases in adolescent smoking during this decade.
Nationally, the adolescent rate of perceived health risk from smoking a pack of cigarettes daily increased from 63.7 percent in 2002-03 to 65.4 percent in 2009-2010. Only five states saw significant growth in the amount of teens who perceived a great risk from smoking cigarettes daily as well as a significant decline in their rate of smoking.
Citation: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Report: State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk from Smoking: 2009 and 2010. Rockville, MD
|October 16, 2012||Posted by M. P. under Drug and Alcohol, Health, Policy, Research, Youth Development||
A report from The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) at Georgetown University suggests that youth are seeing more alcohol advertisements promoting its use than other messages such as health risks or dangers of driving while intoxicated. The report, Drowned Out: Alcohol Industry “Responsibility” Advertising on Television 2001-2005 concluded that underage youth are exposed to larger amounts of industry television spots touting the enjoyment of alcohol than those promoting responsible use.
Between the years of 2001-2005:
- Underage youth were 239 times more likely to view advertisements promoting alcohol than industry-sponsored ads on the hazards of under-age consumption of alcohol
- Youth were more likely to see an industry advertisement warning against drinking and driving than against under-age consumption, but were more likely overall to see advertisements promoting the enoyment of a particular brand of alcohol
- Out of 300 alcohol brands that purchased television advertising, 8.3 percent (25) placed advertisements with a focus on responsible use of their product
Although data from 2010 indicate that the rate of alcohol use among youths aged 12 to 17 remained stable, the public health/public policy concern valid as alcohol is the most widely use illegal drug by underage youth in America. In addition, as stated in another recent bulletin from CAMY, African-American youth 12-20 years of age are seeing more advertisements for alcohol in the media compared to their peers of the same age group. The researchers suggest this is due to specific targeting of African American consumers by some brands, as well as the pattern of print and broadcast media exposure among the African American population.
Is media exposure to alcohol advertising contributing to the use of alcohol by underage youth? What about the promotion of certain brands of alcohol on social media sites like Facebook and Twitter (not measured in the study)?